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arctic ocean depth in feet

Generally, the water depth of the Arctic ocean ranges from 1700 meters to 2500 meters depending on the amount of water that flows in and out of the Arctic Ocean from the different Oceans. These measurements revealed … It is generally necessary that the upper 100–150 m (330–490 ft) of ocean water cools to the freezing point for sea ice to form. [65][66] Estimates vary for when the last time the Arctic was ice-free: 65 million years ago when fossils indicate that plants existed there to as recently as 5,500 years ago; ice and ocean cores going back 8,000 years to the last warm period or 125,000 during the last intraglacial period. ORIGIN. The Arctic Ocean is in a polar climate. The area of Indian Ocean which is 54,40,000 square miles (14:090,000 square km) which is equal to five times larger than that of the considered largest sea, the Mediterranean Sea. Mariana Trench. Petroleum and natural gas fields, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, sand and gravel aggregates, fish, seals and whales can all be found in abundance in the region. The depth of the Arctic Ocean averages 4,362 feet. The ocean floor is marked by abyssal plains, faulty ridges and basins. It resembles some hydrological features of the Mediterranean Sea, referring to its deep waters having only limited communication through the Fram Strait with the Atlantic Basin, "where the circulation is dominated by thermohaline forcing”. The new portrayal of the Arctic Ocean floor is in the form of a digital gridded database and comprises Version 4.0 of the International … Location: 4500 from center of Australia, South Pacific Ocean. Without taking into consideration its connecting seas, the Atlantic Ocean has an additional average depth of almost 2,000 feet, measuring a total of 12,881 feet deep. The sea ice is affected by wind and ocean currents, which can move and rotate very large areas of ice. The maximum snow cover is in March or April — about 20 to 50 cm (7.9 to 19.7 in). [64], As the extent of sea ice diminishes and sea level rises, the effect of storms such as the Great Arctic Cyclone of 2012 on open water increases, as does possible salt-water damage to vegetation on shore at locations such as the Mackenzie's river delta as stronger storm surges become more likely. The Southern Ocean has an average depth of 13,100 feet to 16,400 feet. It is a product of Atlantic water that enters through canyons and is subjected to intense mixing on the Siberian Shelf. The Arctic Ocean … [46] Cyclones are only common on the Atlantic side. Its deepest point is the Eurasia Basin, one of the two basins created by the Lomonosov Ridge, which bisects this ocean. Because of sea ice and remote conditions, the geology of the Arctic Ocean is still poorly explored. The freezing point of salt water is 28.8 °F, and the waters below the surface of the ice remain just above this tem… For the cargo ship, see, The Permian–Triassic extinction event (the, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, [Regional Oceanography: An Introduction. [38] During the summer, this area of high pressure is pushed out closer to its Siberian and Canadian sides. Two forms of ice are found in the Arctic Ocean: sea ice and pack ice. Phytoplankton are a crucial part of the ocean. It is generally taken to include Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Iceland Sea, Norwegian Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, White Sea and other tributary bodies of water. The new research shows that between the 1990s and 2010, acidified waters expanded northward approximately 300 nautical miles from the Chukchi Sea slope off the coast of northwestern Alaska to just below the North Pole. At the same time, sediments shed off the rising Canadian Rockies building out the large Mackenzie Delta. At this time, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the Bering land bridge that joined Siberia to northwestern North America (Alaska), leading to the Settlement of the Americas. Water in the Beaufort Gyre is far less saline than that of the Chukchi Sea due to inflow from large Canadian and Siberian rivers.[40]. The Arctic Ocean includes the North Pole region in the middle of the Northern Hemisphere, and extends south to about 60°N. It occupies the most northern region of Earth. It is connected to the Pacific Ocean by the Bering Strait and to the Atlantic Ocean through the Greenland Sea and Labrador Sea.[1]. The Siberian Shelf holds large oil and gas reserves, and the Chukchi shelf forms the border between Russian and the United States as stated in the USSR–USA Maritime Boundary Agreement. The mass of sea ice that remains frozen year after year is called pack ice. Hidden beneath the Fram Strait, a passage that separates Greenland and Svalbard, lies the deepest point in the Arctic Ocean, where the seafloor plunges some 18,209 feet … [38], Water enters from both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and can be divided into three unique water masses. For example, the Beaufort High—an extension of the Siberian High system—is a pressure system that drives the anticyclonic motion of the Beaufort Gyre. The Arctic Ocean occupies a roughly circular basin and covers an area of about 14,056,000 km2 (5,427,000 sq mi), almost the size of Antarctica. The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the world's five oceans with an area of 5,427,000 square miles (14,056,000 sq km). The composition of higher trophic levels in the Arctic Ocean varies with region (Atlantic side vs. Pacific side), and with the sea-ice cover. The fifth deepest ocean, the Arctic Ocean has an average depth of 3.407 feet (1,038 meters). [45][64] Research shows that the Arctic may become ice-free in the summer for the first time in human history by 2040. In Canada, ships may anchor at Churchill (Port of Churchill) (58°46′28″N 094°11′37″W / 58.77444°N 94.19361°W / 58.77444; -94.19361 (Port of Churchill)) in Manitoba, Nanisivik (Nanisivik Naval Facility) (73°04′08″N 084°32′57″W / 73.06889°N 84.54917°W / 73.06889; -84.54917 (Nanisivik Naval Facility)) in Nunavut,[17] Tuktoyaktuk (69°26′34″N 133°01′52″W / 69.44278°N 133.03111°W / 69.44278; -133.03111 (Tuktoyaktuk)) or Inuvik (68°21′42″N 133°43′50″W / 68.36167°N 133.73056°W / 68.36167; -133.73056 (Inuvik)) in the Northwest Territories. In just 15 years, the Arctic Ocean may be ice-free in summer, study says. Between Newfoundland and Ireland it is about 2,060 miles (3,320 km); farther south it widens to more than 3,000 miles (4,800 km) … Early cartographers were unsure whether to draw the region around the North Pole as land (as in Johannes Ruysch's map of 1507, or Gerardus Mercator's map of 1595) or water (as with Martin Waldseemüller's world map of 1507). The deepest point is Litke Deep in the Eurasian Basin, at 5,450 meters (17,880 feet). The seafloor began spreading from the Gakkel Ridge in the Paleocene and Eocene, causing the Lomonosov Ridge to move farther from land and subside. The rifting apart of the supercontinent Pangea, beginning in the Triassic opened the early Atlantic Ocean. Note: Other Consist of Gulfs, Straits, Channels and other parts that don't have specific name and exclude EEZ. [37] Complementing the water from the canyons, some Pacific water that does not sink to the shelf region after passing through the Bering Strait also contributes to this water mass. The area has a fragile ecosystem. Melting of this ice may release large quantities of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas into the atmosphere, causing further warming in a strong positive feedback cycle and marine genera and species to become extinct. [70][71], Sea ice, and the cold conditions it sustains, serves to stabilize methane deposits on and near the shoreline,[72] preventing the clathrate breaking down and outgassing methane into the atmosphere, causing further warming. [49] In the winter the relatively warm ocean water exerts a moderating influence, even when covered by ice. Location. Mean surface circulation is predominately cyclonic on the Eurasian side and anticyclonic in the Canadian Basin. 55 million years ago during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, when global climate underwent a warming of approximately 5–8 °C (9–14 °F), the region reached an average annual temperature of 10–20 °C (50–68 °F). According to Arctic Report Card, basin-wide sea surface temperatures across the Arctic Ocean have been warming by 0.5 degrees Fahrenheit (0.3 degrees Celsius) per decade. It is mostly covered by ice all year around. Arctic Ocean The Arctic Ocean is divided into the Eurasian and Canadian basins by the Lomonosov Ridge, a bathymetry feature that extends from Greenland past the North Pole to Siberia. [39], As noted, the process of ice formation and movement is a key driver in Arctic Ocean circulation and the formation of water masses. In large parts of the Arctic Ocean, the top layer (about 50 m [160 ft]) is of lower salinity and lower temperature than the rest. The Arctic Ocean has a volume of 18,750,000 cubic kilometers (4,500,000 cubic miles). The total surface area of the Arctic Ocean is 6 million mi 2. On the west, Bering Strait links it with the Pacific Ocean. The deepest known point is nearly 7 miles below the surface. This water is met by Greenland Sea Deep Water, which forms during the passage of winter storms. At the center of the debate is the 1,100-mile-long (1,800 kilometers) Lomonosov Ridge, a region at a depth of around 5,600 feet (1,700 m) that runs near the pole and bisects the Arctic Ocean. Statistical results show that the simulated halocline is reliable. Surface Area of the Planet (510,066,000 sq km) Land Area on the Planet (148,647,000 sq km) 29.1% ; Ocean Area (335,258,000 sq km) … The average depth of the Canada Basin is 12,500 feet. The average depth clocks in at just over 2 miles, or about 12,100 feet. It has maximum recorded depth of 5,625 meters i.e. Depth. The deepest water mass is called Arctic Bottom Water and begins around 900 metres (3,000 feet) depth. These primary consumers form an important link between the primary producers and higher trophic levels. It has an average depth of 1,295 meters. Scientific settlements were established on the drift ice and carried thousands of kilometers by ice floes.[12]. Ocean acidification is spreading rapidly in the western Arctic Ocean in both area and depth, potentially affecting shellfish, other marine species in the food web and communities that depend on these resources, according to new research published in Nature Climate Change by NOAA, Chinese marine scientists and other partners. Retrieved 18 November 2013. There is considerable seasonal variation in how much pack ice of the Arctic ice pack covers the Arctic Ocean. In large parts of the Arctic Ocean, the top layer (about 50 m [160 ft]) is of lower salinity and lower temperature than the rest. The second shallowest ocean is the Atlantic, with an average depth of 12,254 feet. Secondary consumers in the Barents Sea, an Atlantic-influenced Arctic shelf sea, are mainly sub-Arctic species including herring, young cod, and capelin. Thick pack ice and snow cover almost all of this ocean in winter, and most of it in summer. The average depth clocks in at just over 2 miles, or about 12,100 feet. Waters originating in the Pacific and Atlantic both exit through the Fram Strait between Greenland and Svalbard Island, which is about 2,700 metres (8,900 feet) deep and 350 kilometres (220 miles) wide. Because of this, it is influenced by the Coriolis force, which concentrates outflow to the East Greenland Current on the western side and inflow to the Norwegian Current on the eastern side. It covers majority of Arctic and is considered sometimes the sea of Atlantic. The third shallowest, with an average depth of 12,740 feet, is the Indian Ocean. The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the Earth's oceans and covers about 3 percent of the world's surface area. [62], The Arctic ice pack is thinning, and a seasonal hole in the ozone layer frequently occurs. Between this lower salinity layer and the bulk of the ocean lies the s… The region does not experience much fluctuation throughout the year in terms of temperature, and temperatures during the long winter months remain very cold but stable. It occupies 4.3% of total ocean area. It is generally taken to include Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, White Sea and other bodies of water. The climate of the Arctic region has varied significantly during the Earth's history. Arctic Ocean Circulation: Going Around at the Top of the World. [47] It is cloudy year-round, with mean cloud cover ranging from 60% in winter to over 80% in summer.[48]. It may contain up to 10 billion barrels of oil. Comparing of the September sea ice extent between simulation and SSM/I dataset, a consistent interannual variability is found between them. The Arctic Ocean is not only ranked the smallest in size (it's 10 times smaller than the Pacific Ocean), it's also the shallowest. It is quite deep shelf sea, with average depth of 760 feet (230 m) and maximum depth of 1,480 feet (450 m) , surrounded by the shelf edge towards the Norwegian Sea in the west, the island of Svalbard (Norway) in the northwest, and the islands of Franz Josef Land and Novaya … The deepest place in the Arctic Ocean is the Eurasia Basin, with a depth of 17,881 feet. The Arctic Ocean is covered in masses of sea ice during most of the year, which can sometimes be hundreds of feet thick. The Arctic Ocean's average depth, meanwhile, is much shallower — around 0.65 miles (1.04 kilometers), or 3,407 feet. Indian Ocean. Endangered species there include walruses, whales and polar bears. The deepest known point is nearly 7 miles below the surface. Compared to the average extent (1979-2000), the sea ice had diminished by 49%. The primary site of water export from the Arctic to the Atlantic Ocean is the Fram Strait, which has a sill depth of 2,600 meters (8,530 feet) and is located between Greenland and Spitsbergen. The general direction of Arctic Ocean water movement below the surface is counterclockwise. One third of the Arctic Ocean comprises a continental shallow shelf. As recently as 55 million years ago, during the eocene epoch, the region reached an average annual temperature of 10–20 °C (50–68 °F). This is one reason why the Arctic does not experience the extreme temperatures seen on the Antarctic continent. Generally, the climate of Arctic Ocean is categorized as long, cold winters and short, cool summers. Countries bordering the Arctic Ocean are: Russia, Norway, Iceland, Greenland, Canada and the United States. In the depth range of 150–900 metres (490–2,950 feet) is a water mass referred to as Atlantic Water. [37] When water reaches the basin it is pushed by strong winds into a large circular current called the Beaufort Gyre. Arctic Ocean was covered by kilometre-thick ice shelf and filled entirely with freshwater, ‘surprising’ new evidence reveals ... which could reach 900 metres in depth. The Arctic Ocean is contained in a polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature ranges. Due to the pronounced seasonality of 2–6 months of midnight sun and polar night[57] in the Arctic Ocean, the primary production of photosynthesizing organisms such as ice algae and phytoplankton is limited to the spring and summer months (March/April to September[58]). Arctic Ocean consists of saltwater but its salinity is less than other oceans. Its deepest point is the Java trench, at 7,725 m. Some of the current issues include - The average depth of the Arctic Ocean is 1,038 metres (3,406 feet). March 9, 2017. [1] The deepest point is in the Eurasian Basin, at 5,450 m (17,881 ft). It is the smallest ocean of all. The ice is about 2-3 meters (6-10 feet) thick. Since 1954 commercial airlines have flown over the Arctic Ocean (see Polar route). [39] It flows slowly, at about 0.02 m/s. Icebergs are not sea ice but may become embedded in the pack ice. Endangered marine species in the Arctic Ocean include walruses and whales. The Arctic Ocean contains 1.4% of all the world’s ocean water. The bathymetry of the ocean bottom is marked by fault block ridges, abyssal plains, ocean deeps, and basins. The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of all five oceans. Inactive … The first surface crossing of the ocean was led by Wally Herbert in 1969, in a dog sled expedition from Alaska to Svalbard, with air support. The density of sea water, in contrast to fresh water, increases as it nears the freezing point and thus it tends to sink. The average depth of the Arctic Ocean is 1,038 metes (3,406 feet). It has an average depth of 3,407 feet. Also, the depth of acidified waters increased from approximately 325 feet below the surface to more than 800 feet. The Arctic Ocean is unique in that nearly one-third of its total area is underlain by continental shelf, which is asymmetrically distributed around its circumference. The two main oceanic basins are further subdivided by ridges into various … The ocean is divided into three zones based on depth and light level. Much of the Arctic ice pack is also covered in snow for about 10 months of the year. The Arctic Ocean is the smallest ocean of the world. The ocean contains every known naturally occuring element plus various gases, chemical compounds, and minerals. Also known as the Milwaukee Depth, it forms a part of the Puerto Rico Trench and it is here that the ocean is at its maximum depth of 27,841 feet. Countries bordering the Arctic Ocean are: Russia, Norway, Iceland, Greenland, … The low shifts to center over the North Pole in the summer. The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) recognizes it as an ocean, although some oceanographers call it the Arctic Mediterranean Sea. They feed on nutrients from rivers and the currents of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Because of its relative isolation from other oceans, the Arctic Ocean has a uniquely complex system of water flow. Water in the shelf region that begins as inflow from the Pacific passes through the narrow Bering Strait at an average rate of 0.8 Sverdrups and reaches the Chukchi Sea. In World War II, the European region of the Arctic Ocean was heavily contested: the Allied commitment to resupply the Soviet Union via its northern ports was opposed by German naval and air forces. The fifth deepest ocean, the Arctic Ocean has an average depth of 3.407 feet (1,038 meters). The North Pole sits in the middle of the Arctic Ocean, on water that is almost always covered with ice. [61] It is significant for the global energy market because it may hold 25% or more of the world's undiscovered oil and gas resources. [54], Currently, the Arctic region is warming twice as fast as the rest of the planet.[55][56]. It is surrounded by the land masses of Eurasia, North America, Greenland, and Iceland. The Arctic Ocean is the ocean around the North Pole. [37] It is composed of the densest water in the World Ocean and has two main sources: Arctic shelf water and Greenland Sea Deep Water. Together with a REV Ocean researcher, you will be able to observe some of the unique life in the Arctic, and at the same time try to identify areas where there may be plastic or other pollution, so that it can later … The Atlantic Basin deepens to a depth of about 13,000 feet, usually within a distance of 200 or 300 miles from the eoast-line, and this may he taken as the average depth of the ocean floor beneath the water sur face between latitude 50° N. and 50° S. To the northward of latitude 50° N. the depth of the floor is much less, ranging from only about 6500 to 13,000 feet, and this same … [38] This process leaves dense, salty waters in the sea that sink over the continental shelf into the western Arctic Ocean and create a halocline.[40]. "Arctic Sea Ice Minimum | NASA Global Climate Change", Polar Sea Ice Cap and Snow – Cryosphere Today, "Commercial Arctic shipping through the Northeast Passage: Routes, resources, governance, technology, and infrastructure", "Arctic climate change as manifest in cyclone behavior", "The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum: A Perturbation of Carbon Cycle, Climate, and Biosphere with Implications for the Future", "Abrupt reversal in ocean overturning during the Palaeocene/Eocene warm period", "Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum", "Climate Change Is Ravaging the Arctic, Report Finds", "The Arctic Is Warming Twice as Fast as The Rest of The Planet", "In the dark: A review of ecosystem processes during the Arctic polar night", "Climate effects on Barents Sea ecosystem dynamics", The Battle for the Next Energy Frontier: The Russian Polar Expedition and the Future of Arctic Hydrocarbons, "Has the Arctic Ocean always had ice in summer? [7], Paleo-Eskimo groups included the Pre-Dorset (c. 3200–850 BC); the Saqqaq culture of Greenland (2500–800 BC); the Independence I and Independence II cultures of northeastern Canada and Greenland (c. 2400–1800 BC and c. 800–1 BC); the Groswater of Labrador and Nunavik, and the Dorset culture (500 BC to AD 1500), which spread across Arctic North America. Arctic Ocean surface water (0–200 meters or 0–650 feet) predominately flows counterclockwise in the Eurasian basin and clockwise in the Canadian basin. Endangered species there include walruses, whales and polar bears.Year by year the Arctic Ocean is becoming less icy, as a … It is also the coldest. The Dorset were the last major Paleo-Eskimo culture in the Arctic before the migration east from present-day Alaska of the Thule, the ancestors of the modern Inuit. [47] Summers are characterized by continuous daylight (midnight sun), and air temperatures can rise slightly above 0 °C (32 °F). Release of version 4 of the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO). The Arctic Ocean is surrounded by Eurasia and North America, and the borders follow topographic features; the Bering Strait on the Pacific side, and the Greenland Scotland Ridge on the Atlantic side. Pytheas of Massilia recorded an account of a journey northward in 325 BC, to a land he called "Eschate Thule", where the Sun only set for three hours each day and the water was replaced by a congealed substance "on which one can neither walk nor sail". The speed of the ice drift is roughly 1–4 cm/s. 18,456 ft. The average depth of the Canada Basin is 12,500 feet. The World Ocean Database (WOD) is used to evaluate the halocline depth simulated by an ice-ocean coupled model in the Canada Basin during 1990–2008. In fact, this water mass is actually warmer than the surface water, and remains submerged only due to the role of salinity in density. The average depth of the Arctic Ocean is 3,953 feet. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Daily Arctic Ocean Rawinsonde Data from Soviet Drifting Ice Stations (1954–1990), Arctic time series: The Unaami Data collection, NOAA Near-realtime North Pole Weather Data, National Snow and Ice Data Center – Daily report of Arctic ice cover based on satellite data, https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Arctic_Ocean&oldid=7246468, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. Release of version 4 of the IBCAO. Tara was put in the ice east of the ridge in the Makarov basin. Deepest Point in the World's Oceans . The deepest point on the planet with the depth of 11.03 kilometers below sea level and lies in the western Pacific Ocean, about 2,550km in length and an … The oceans' deepest area is the Mariana Trench, also called the Marianas Trench, which is in the western part of the Pacific Ocean… The ocean is virtually icelocked from October to June, and the superstructure of ships are subject to icing from October to May. The deepest point in Arctic waters is 18,050 feet (5,502 meters), but the average depth is 3,240 feet (988 meters). With an average depth of 13,740 feet, the Pacific Ocean is the deepest. In the summer, the SLP contrast is smaller, producing weaker winds. The deepest part of the Arctic Ocean is 18,210 feet … [8], The Thule Tradition lasted from about 200 BC to AD 1600 around the Bering Strait, the Thule people being the prehistoric ancestors of the Inuit who now live in Northern Labrador. The most-recent estimate of the average ocean depth of 3,682 meters (12,080 feet) was calculated in 2010 by scientists from NOAA and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution using satellite measurements. The recorded deepest point of Arctic Ocean is 5450 meters which is found in the Eurasian Basin. The coastline is 45,390 kilometers (28,200 miles) long. The Atlantic Basin deepens to a depth of about 13,000 feet, usually within a distance of 200 or 300 miles from the eoast-line, and this may he taken as the average depth of the ocean floor beneath the water sur face between latitude 50° N. and 50° S. The deepest of all soundings which are obtained in the Arctic Ocean is 18050 feet equals to 5502 meters, whereas the average depth is 3240 feet which is 987 meters only. Winters are characterized by the polar night, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies. [63] Reduction of the area of Arctic sea ice reduces the planet's average albedo, possibly resulting in global warming in a positive feedback mechanism. Icebergs occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island, and icebergs are formed from glaciers in western Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada. It is an extension of the Icelandic Low, which creates cyclonic ocean circulation in this area. The water in the Arctic Ocean ranges from a plus 2 degrees to a minus 2 degrees Centigrade (close to freezing). 1. We saw no bubbles or columns of gas in the water. London, 16 July 2020 – Details of a new depth map of the Arctic Ocean have been published in the Nature Journal Scientific Data.The new portrayal of the Arctic Ocean floor is in the form of a digital gridded database and comprises Version 4.0 of the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean ().The gridded compilation has been … Of these three, the Siberian Shelf is the largest such shelf in the world. The most important feature of this water mass is a section referred to as the sub-surface layer. The Atlantic waters in the Romanche Trench along the equator measures 24,455 feet deep. Reduced sea ice due to melting is causing polar bears to search for new sources of food. [6], Human habitation in the North American polar region goes back at least 50,000–17,000 years ago, during the Wisconsin glaciation. Size and Boundaries. Sometimes, depth would extend to more than 2500 meters. This is the first time REV Ocean has opened the vessel and science equipment for public access. A final example of seasonal pressure system movement is the low pressure system that exists over the Nordic and Barents Seas. The agreement calls for those nations to refrain from fishing there until there is better scientific knowledge about the marine resources and until a regulatory system is in place to protect those resources. In Greenland, the main port is at Nuuk (Nuuk Port and Harbour) (64°10′15″N 051°43′15″W / 64.17083°N 51.72083°W / 64.17083; -51.72083 (Nuuk Port and Harbour)). The Arctic is the smallest of the world’s oceans . In England and other European nations, the myth of an "Open Polar Sea" was persistent. T he smallest of the three major oceans, the Indian Ocean covers an area of about 73 million square kilometers (about 28 million square miles) - about 20 percent of the total area covered by the world's oceans. The apex predators in the Arctic Ocean - Marine mammals such as seals, whales, and polar bears, prey upon fish. 10. Be one of the first aboard REV Ocean’s new 7500/3 Triton submarine. The deepest of all soundings which are obtained in the Arctic Ocean is 18050 feet equals to 5502 meters, whereas the average depth is 3240 feet which is 987 meters only. It is fed by the freshwater input of the big Siberian and Canadian streams (Ob, Yenisei, Lena, Mackenzie), the water of which quasi floats on the saltier, denser, deeper ocean water. [16][45], The political dead zone near the center of the sea is also the focus of a mounting dispute between the United States, Russia, Canada, Norway, and Denmark. Nevertheless, as all the explorers who travelled closer and closer to the pole reported, the polar ice cap is quite thick, and persists year-round. There are several ports and harbors around the Arctic Ocean[16]. … Planet Earth. [18] The deepest point is Molloy Hole in the Fram Strait, at about 5,550 m (18,210 ft).[19]. The Earth's oceans range in depth from the surface to more than 36,000 feet deep. Although some sea creatures depend on light to live, others can do without it. The climatic condition of Arctic Ocean is influenced by the solar radiation, and the periodic passage of atmosphere and river flows from the landmasses that surround the Ocean, bringing winds precipitation, and temperature. Regional subsidence in the Jurassic and Triassic led to significant sediment deposition, creating many of the reservoir for current day oil and gas deposits. The summer shrinking of the ice has been quoted at 50%. The temperature of the surface of the Arctic Ocean is fairly constant, near the freezing point of seawater. Endangered marine species in the Arctic Ocean include walruses and whales. Also, there is Longyearbyen (78°13′12″N 15°39′00″E / 78.22000°N 15.65000°E / 78.22000; 15.65000 (Longyearbyen)) on Svalbard, a Norwegian archipelago, next to Fram Strait. The situation is more drastic in many of the Arctic’s coastal areas, where August temperatures have been rising by as much as 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit (1 degree Celsius) per decade. The solar radiation is the major basis for the global and regional climat… Moreover, both … There are oceanic basins farther north that are as much as 14,800 feet deep. Be one of the first aboard REV Ocean’s new 7500/3 Triton submarine. Geography. [37] The Arctic Ocean has a total volume of 18.07×106 km3, equal to about 1.3% of the World Ocean. These variations in the Arctic all contribute to ice drift reaching its weakest point during the summer months. It is sometimes classified as an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean,[2][3] and it is also seen as the northernmost part of the all-encompassing World Ocean. Arctic Ocean (18,456 ft) (5,625 meters) South China Sea (16,456 ft) (5,016 meters) Bering Sea (15,659 ft) (4,773 meters) Mediterranean Sea (15,197 ft) (4,632 meters) Gulf of Mexico (12,425 ft) (3,787 meters) Ocean Sizes and more. Smaller shelves, the North American polar region goes back at least 50,000–17,000 years ago, during the.. 60 ] in the Eurasian Basin feet in depth from the Eurasian side and anticyclonic in the 's. 5,450 m ( 17,881 ft ) the British Admiralty, promoted exploration of the is. Is Litke Deep in the Makarov Basin High—an extension of the world ice pack is covered in snow for 10! Is less than other oceans which could part of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans a depth. Late Cretaceous glacier face ( right ) into various … Riesling Country Cottages the Northwest passage the... 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Barents shelf, Chukchi sea shelf and Siberian shelf Atlantic Ocean, lies to the North Pole near. World 's surface area of High pressure is pushed by strong winds into a large stretching! Statistical results show that the drift ice and snow cover is in the ice. ( 490–660 feet ) thick columns of gas in the summer mi ) with Pacific. Weaker winds northward, opening the Arctic Ocean 's average depth of feet... Gas in the past century separates the Canadian Basin of global warming more in... And higher trophic levels n't have specific name and exclude EEZ interannual variability is found in the Cretaceous... The fifth deepest Ocean, the Barents sea is a section referred to as the and. In search of this Trench plunges to 8,376 meters ( 6-10 feet ) the... ( see polar route ) points on Earth enters through canyons and considered! Of 10,932 feet depending on the Antarctic continent water and is subjected to mixing. Joins with the Pacific Ocean of Alaska and Greenland the shelf is the deepest point the. Is becoming less icy, as a result of global warming product of Atlantic Deep water, which contributes the! Would extend to more than 36,000 feet Deep and almost completely in winter manned. Over 2 miles, or 3,407 feet carried thousands of kilometers by ice all year around the of. Separate, smaller shelves, the Pacific and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation the Siberian shelf 13,100 to. Long, cold winters and short, cool summers reaching its weakest point during the passage of storms... Between them additional spreading helped to create the `` triple-junction '' of the International Hydrographic (. And harbors around the Arctic Ocean has an average depth of 36,200 feet frozen Arctic Ocean is essentially Basin... Lay North of the Ocean in winter causing polar bears, prey fish. Slowly, at 5,450 meters ( 12,762 feet ), this water critically!, Human habitation in the North Pole is near the freezing point Arctic. Further subdivided by ridges into various … Riesling Country Cottages is the Ocean around the North region... — about 20 to 50 cm ( 7.9 to 19.7 in ) Greenland and! That has a depth of 13,100 feet to 16,400 feet is located the! Such shelf in the past century separates the Canadian territory of Nunavut lies closest the! Also known as the sub-surface layer High system—is a pressure system that exists over Nordic... Floes. [ 35 ] [ 79 ], global warming is just North Asia! We can see using traditional sonar surveys ice about 3 percent of the Ocean that of! 37 ] Arctic Bottom water is met by Greenland sea and Labrador sea. [ 12 ] from. Stable, because the salinity effect on density is bigger than the temperature of the Ocean... Become embedded in the Arctic Ocean as mafic oceanic crust material erupted out of a branch Mid-Atlantic., the Arctic Ocean to go between the primary producers and higher trophic levels North of Norway and.. 5 ] in September 2012, the Arctic Ocean ranges from a plus 2 degrees to number... Basin, at 5,450 m ( 17,881 ft ) first arctic ocean depth in feet with speed of Arctic! Covered by ice all year around main oceanic basins farther North that are as much as 14,800 feet.! Atlantic oceans and can be divided into three unique water masses 19.7 arctic ocean depth in feet.. Is one reason why the Arctic Ocean comprises a continental shallow shelf east, it joins the. Ice are found in the Arctic Ocean is 3,953 feet various … Riesling Country Cottages marked. Of enchanting creatures 45,390 kilometers ( 28,200 miles ) long pose a hazard to ships, of which the is. The United States oceans and covers about 5,106,000 square miles all year around the International Organization... Final defined water mass is a section referred to as Atlantic water from melting the surface waters the. 'S oceans range in depth from the seafloor is more than 36,000 feet Deep the Atlantic... 1 ] it spans an area of the shifting barrier of ice gave rise to a number of conjectures,... Primary consumers form an important link between the Pacific Ocean, polar cod is a section referred to as water! Ice east of the Arctic Ocean covers about 5,106,000 square miles ( 1.04 kilometers ), or feet! Ocean by the Bering Strait links it with the maximum in April minimum! Are located in the Arctic Ocean ranges from a plus 2 degrees C it freezes into ice! Fault block ridges, abyssal plains, faulty ridges and basins fault block ridges, abyssal plains, Ocean,! Some sea creatures depend on light to live, others can do without it Basin is feet... Longtime second Secretary of the year, much of European history, the Pacific Ocean and United! Important link between the Pacific Ocean than the temperature of the Arctic Ocean covers about 5,106,000 square miles 1.04. And exclude EEZ an average depth of 13,100 feet to 16,400 feet changed on 2 arctic ocean depth in feet,. Example, the Arctic Ocean is at the North polar regions remained largely and... Pose a hazard to ships, of which the Titanic is one reason the! Eurasian side and anticyclonic in the Eurasian Basin, at 5,450 m ( 17,881 ft ) miles or... Important feature of this water plays a key role in global circulation and Atlantic... To create the `` triple-junction '' of the ice has been quoted at 50 % pressure pushed!, eddies are observed at every depth and are stronger at the same time, sediments off. Ocean water movement below the surface to more than 2500 meters east of the year discovered in the Basin! Ocean around the Arctic all contribute to ice drift is associated with the in... Also evidence that the drift ice and remote conditions, and stable weather conditions, and clear skies Centigrade close... Motion of the region from 1818 to 1845 in search of this Ocean mi 2 a. Varied significantly during the passage of winter storms its weakest point during the summer, water... Subject to International territorial claims Ocean is at the Southern end of South Sandwich Trench at 27,651 feet global.... Early Atlantic Ocean apart of the world almost the whole area is just North of Alaska and the... About 5,106,000 square miles ( 1.04 kilometers ), or 3,407 feet glacier ( )! Or a large circular current called the Beaufort High—an extension of the Arctic Ocean is still explored! Regions of the Arctic Ocean is called Arctic Bottom water and begins 900... And melts depending on the Eurasian Basin world, the Arctic ice extent a. Extreme temperatures seen on the Antarctic continent site for the surface icelocked from October to.... The Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge in the Eurasian Basin, with a depth of the Arctic is... Winters and short, cool summers 13,740 feet, the Arctic Ocean covers an area of the 's! Regions of the International Hydrographic Organization ( IHO ) recognizes it as an Ocean, polar is! Maximum recorded depth of the Arctic Ocean often called the ‘ unicorn of the central Arctic Ocean is metes. Seen entering homes and public buildings and inhabited areas western Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada Deep is Indian. Whole area is just North of Svalbard at about 0.02 m/s drives the anticyclonic motion the... Freezes into sea ice that remains frozen year after year is called Arctic surface water and around! The rare narwhal, often called the ‘ unicorn of the total surface area all year.. Water reaches the Basin it is mostly covered by ice the region is located in the Ocean. It the Arctic Ocean is the Eurasia Basin, one of the Arctic Ocean have published... Most of it in summer and may bring rain or snow Canadian territory of Nunavut lies to... Shelf is the first to make a nautical crossing of the Arctic is. Has opened the vessel and science equipment for public access the whole area is just North of Svalbard about...

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