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beetle scientific name genus and species

Mississippi State University has estimated, since the boll weevil entered the United States, it has cost cotton producers about $13 billion, and in recent times about $300 million per year. To endure the period without food (often lasting many months) adults prepare by accumulating reserves of lipids, glycogen, proteins and other substances needed for resistance to future hazardous changes of environmental conditions. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. 1994. [111], Decaying organic matter is a primary diet for many species. Titan beetle, Titanus giganteus, a tropical longhorn, is one of the largest and heaviest insects in the world. It is known as the elytra. Bark beetles (Scolytidae) carry Dutch elm disease as they move from infected breeding sites to healthy trees. They are greenish yellow in colour, between 2.5 and 11 mm (up … [146][147] The hieroglyphic image of the beetle may have had existential, fictional, or ontologic significance. Pupae never have mandibles (they are adecticous). Dermestids produce esters, and species of Elateridae produce fatty acid-derived aldehydes and acetates. African carabid beetles (for example, Anthia) employ the same chemicals as ants: formic acid. After landing on a suitable tree, an ambrosia beetle excavates a tunnel in which it releases spores of its fungal symbiont. The name of the taxonomic order, Coleoptera, comes from the Greek koleopteros (κολεόπτερος), given to the group by Aristotle for their elytra, hardened shield-like forewings, from koleos, sheath, and pteron, wing. The larval period varies between species, but can be as long as several years. The Carabidae typically have thread-like antennae. The hieroglyphic image of the beetle may have had existential, fictional, or ontologic significance. The name Alticais derived from the Greek word haltikos which translates to good jumper. [155][157], About 75% of beetle species are phytophagous in both the larval and adult stages. Many beetles, including those that live in sandy places, have effective camouflage. Diving beetles (Dytiscidae) hold air between the abdomen and the elytra when diving. [191], In Japan the practice of keeping horned rhinoceros beetles (Dynastinae) and stag beetles (Lucanidae) is particularly popular amongst young boys. Almost all beetles have mandibles that move in a horizontal plane. There are more than 150 important fossil sites from the Jurassic, the majority in Eastern Europe and North Asia. [146] Some of ancient Egypt's neighbors adopted the scarab motif for seals of varying types. Flea Beetle Altica Spp . [186] Sometimes, they are incorporated into ritual objects for their religious significance. Origins of parental care in chrysomelid beetles. It has paired inlets or ostia at intervals down its length, and circulates the hemolymph from the main cavity of the haemocoel and out through the anterior cavity in the head. Little appears to be known of the larval cycle in … [66] Antennae vary greatly in form, sometimes between the sexes, but are often similar within any given family. [174] The Australian Dung Beetle Project (1965–1985), introduced species of dung beetle to Australia from South Africa and Europe to reduce populations of Musca vetustissima, following successful trials of this technique in Hawaii. The smallest recorded beetle and the smallest free-living insect (as of 2015[update]), is the featherwing beetle Scydosella musawasensis which may measure as little as 325 µm in length.[20]. [158], The bark beetle, elm leaf beetle and the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis)[159] are among the species that attack elm trees. [199] Similar technology has been applied to enable a human operator to control the free-flight steering and walking gaits of Mecynorhina torquata as well as graded turning and backward walking of Zophobas morio. Many beetle groups are brightly and attractively coloured making them objects of collection and decorative displays. The gland is made of two containing chambers, one for hydroquinones and hydrogen peroxide, the other holding hydrogen peroxide and catalase enzymes. Many flea beetle species in the genus Altica have a relatively broad host range, feeding on plant species in [189], Some species of beetle are kept as pets, for example diving beetles (Dytiscidae) may be kept in a domestic fresh water tank. [7], Like most insects, beetles inhale air, for the oxygen it contains, and exhale carbon dioxide, via a tracheal system. The genus is the bigger grouping; to get more specific in identifying a Elateroidea) appeared. Certain Cerambycidae use antennae to balance, and blister beetles may use them for grasping. Some, such as stag beetles, have a marked sexual dimorphism, the males possessing enormously enlarged mandibles which they use to fight other males. Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera /koʊliːˈɒptərə/, in the superorder Endopterygota. [165] The mountain pine beetle is a destructive pest of mature or weakened lodgepole pine, sometimes affecting large areas of Canada. B. S. Haldane to quip, when some theologians asked him what could be inferred about the mind of the Creator from the works of His Creation, "An inordinate fondness for beetles". In parts of Mexico, beetles of the genus Zopherus are made into living brooches by attaching costume jewelry and golden chains, which is made possible by the incredibly hard elytra and sedentary habits of the genus. [135] The Alaskan beetle Upis ceramboides can survive −60 °C: its cryoprotectants are xylomannan, a molecule consisting of a sugar bound to a fatty acid,[136] and the sugar-alcohol, threitol. [108], Beetles are able to exploit a wide diversity of food sources available in their many habitats. In these insects, the testes are tubular and the first abdominal sternum (a plate of the exoskeleton) is divided by the hind coxae (the basal joints of the beetle's legs). Popular dislike of pest beetles, too, can be turned into public interest in insects, as can unusual ecological adaptations of species like the fairy shrimp hunting beetle, Cicinis bruchi. [196], Several coleopteran adaptations have attracted interest in biomimetics with possible commercial applications. Predaceous Diving Beetle offspring are tigers in their the underwater world, but most sightings occur when the robust adults explore land. [29] Close to the Upper Jurassic, the Cupedidae decreased, but the diversity of the early plant-eating species increased. [195] The naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace collected (by his own count) a total of 83,200 beetles during the eight years described in his 1869 book The Malay Archipelago, including 2,000 species new to science. [123] Beetles may be particularly important in some parts of the world such as semiarid areas of southern Africa and southern California[124] and the montane grasslands of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. The antennae usually have 11 or fewer segments, except in some groups like the Cerambycidae (longhorn beetles) and the Rhipiceridae (cicada parasite beetles). The larvae and adults of some species of lady beetles (Coccinellidae) feed on aphids that are pests. [7], Tympanal organs or hearing organs consist of a membrane (tympanum) stretched across a frame backed by an air sac and associated sensory neurons, are found in two families. The best-known of these are the Judean LMLK seals, where eight of 21 designs contained scarab beetles, which were used exclusively to stamp impressions on storage jars during the reign of Hezekiah. It is believed that when furniture or house timbers are infested by beetle larvae, the timber already contained the larvae when it was first sawn up. The defensive glands of carabid ground beetles produce a variety of hydrocarbons, aldehydes, phenols, quinones, esters, and acids released from an opening at the end of the abdomen. This species can stridulate to communicate,[93] but others may use sound to defend themselves when attacked. Anoxia tolerance in the larvae may have been sustained by switching to anaerobic metabolic pathways or by reducing metabolic rate. The beetles excavate tunnels in dead trees in which they cultivate fungal gardens, their sole source of nutrition. [164], Other pests include the coconut hispine beetle, Brontispa longissima, which feeds on young leaves, seedlings and mature coconut trees, causing serious economic damage in the Philippines. [119] Others are kleptoparasites of other invertebrates, such as the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) that infests honey bee nests,[120] while many species are parasitic inquilines or commensal in the nests of ants. Miniature cameras weighing 248 mg were attached to live beetles of the Tenebrionid genera Asbolus and Eleodes. Insects (class Insecta) have segmented bodies, jointed legs, and external skeletons. The pterothorax is the fused meso- and metathorax, which are commonly separated in other insect species, although flexibly articulate from the prothorax. [21] Some entomologists are sceptical that such early insects are so closely related to present-day species, arguing that this is extremely unlikely; for example, the structure of the metepisternum suggests that the Obrienidae could be Archostemata, not weevils at all, despite fossils with weevil-like snouts. Some elateriform larvae of click beetles are known as wireworms. Some beetles have special mycangia, structures for the transport of fungal spores.[113]. Many species of leaf beetles, longhorn beetles, and weevils are very host-specific, feeding on only a single species of plant. Hippodamia spp. [169] Ground beetles can help to control weeds by eating their seeds in the soil, reducing the need for herbicides to protect crops. [6], Adults have extremely variable lifespans, from weeks to years, depending on the species. This design provides armored defenses while maintaining flexibility. ), Elateroidea (23000, click and soldier beetles, fireflies), Bostrichoidea (3150, deathwatch, powderpost and skin beetles), Coccinelloidea (6000, ladybirds or lady beetles), Tenebrionoidea 180mya (35000, leaf/flower beetles, etc.) .mw-parser-output table.clade{border-spacing:0;margin:0;font-size:100%;line-height:100%;border-collapse:separate;width:auto}.mw-parser-output table.clade table.clade{width:100%;line-height:inherit}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label{width:0.7em;padding:0 0.15em;vertical-align:bottom;text-align:center;border-left:1px solid;border-bottom:1px solid;white-space:nowrap}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-fixed-width{overflow:hidden;text-overflow:ellipsis}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-fixed-width:hover{overflow:visible}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label.first{border-left:none;border-right:none}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label.reverse{border-left:none;border-right:1px solid}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel{padding:0 0.15em;vertical-align:top;text-align:center;border-left:1px solid;white-space:nowrap}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel:hover{overflow:visible}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel.last{border-left:none;border-right:none}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel.reverse{border-left:none;border-right:1px solid}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-bar{vertical-align:middle;text-align:left;padding:0 0.5em;position:relative}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-bar.reverse{text-align:right;position:relative}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leaf{border:0;padding:0;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leafR{border:0;padding:0;text-align:right}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leaf.reverse{text-align:right}.mw-parser-output table.clade:hover span.linkA{background-color:yellow}.mw-parser-output table.clade:hover span.linkB{background-color:green}, Hydradephaga (5560) e.g. In: Basset Y, Novotny V, Miller SE, Kitching RL, editors. The larvae of skin beetles undergo a degree of reversed development when starved, and later grow back to the previously attained level of maturity. Toxins are said to be produced by dorsal glands in the larvae (Dixon 2000). ), Hydrophiloidea (2800, water scavenger beetles), Byrrhoidea (400, pill and turtle beetles, etc. In the Permian–Triassic extinction event at the end of the Permian, some 30% of all insect species became extinct, so the fossil record of insects only includes beetles from the Lower Triassic 220 mya. Linnaeus created the system of “binomial nomenclature,” which uses only two designations–genus and specific epithet as the species name.In the mid-1800s, scientists agreed on an expanded system of nomenclature. [49] The beetle's exoskeleton is made up of numerous plates, called sclerites, separated by thin sutures. Beetle eggs generally have smooth surfaces and are soft, though the Cupedidae have hard eggs. Two pairs of finger-like appendages, the maxillary and labial palpi, are found around the mouth in most beetles, serving to move food into the mouth.

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