20 Dec copenhagen regional plan
The imminent end of the German occupation generated a huge enthusiasm for planning in the new era of peace and prosperity which seemed to be just around the corner. inhabitants, situated on the coast in the north-east of the island of Zealand. Heaton, L., F. Millerand, D. Delon, F. Schmitt, L. Marseault, and J. Deschamps. 2013: 2). 29–32. However, it is easy to imagine that Copenhageners were keen to move out of the dark and congested inner city and perhaps buy a one-family house in one of the new neighbourhoods that were nicely situated close to public transport, service functions, and green areas. Hence, fingers are modular and consist of sub-modules. date: 19 December 2020, A Robust Urban Planning Success Based on Collaborative Governance. Innes, J. E. and D. E. Booher. 2004. The opening sentence declares that: ‘The Finger Plan is central for the development of the capital region’. (p.222) Train stations were located so that local residents would have no more than fifteen minutes’ walk to the nearest S-train. Regions are led by directly elected councils, and the elections are held every four years. Through a network of alliances, pilot projects and interest representation, we are laying the groundwork for the growth and welfare of the future. However, its core principle is still intact and even the most recent attempt to improve cross-cutting transport between the fingers and expand the palm of the hand through land fill merely tends to confirm and consolidate the existing finger structure. 2002. Johnson, M. P. 2001. Ansell, C. and J. Trondal. The mainland is roughly divided into three areas: Zealand with capital city Copenhagen, Funen and Jutland Peninsula. Indeed, ideas about easy access to green areas resonated well with the hygienic welfare state discourse that called for ‘light, air and cleanliness’ (Schmidt and Kristensen 1986). To further justify the claim that robustness is important for the success of the Finger Plan, let us look at a quote from one of the recent Finger Plans published by the Ministry of the Environment: The urban finger structure appears to be a highly robust structure that has informed urban development in the metropolitan area since the first Finger Housing and local service functions should cluster around the stations on new train lines that would provide fast and efficient transport to workplaces at the roots of the fingers and in the inner city. 2013), we may say that urban planning is robust when it succeeds in turning problems, conflicts, and demands into design assets while simultaneously using modularity to enhance the future adaptability and polyvalence of the designed solutions. It also built on an early recognition of recreational areas situated right next to the residential areas. The General Plan was later superseded by the ‘Principal sketch of a regional plan’ from 1960 that estimated an increasing growth rate and put further emphasis on the development of the fingers towards the south and the south-west. The Finger metaphor was simple, easy to communicate to policy actors and the general public, and captured the essence of the new plan in terms of the radial development of housing and transport separated by green areas. There were many discussions about the placement of new train lines and roads. Retrospectively, we can say that the Finger Plan builds on two simple design principles. This problem was soon turned into an advantage since the final document could now be written in a clear and straightforward manner without too many compromises and with a pointed and stirring foreword by Peter Bredsdorff. Social and political actors in the Copenhagen metropolitan region faced a formidable challenge. Fingerplanen og Transportkorridorerne. Back in the late 1940s and 1950s, there were no systematic attempts to involve local citizens in public planning. The new General Plan from 1952 was mainly an operationalization of the principles laid down in the Finger Plan in and through a series of local development plans that were assembled and mutually integrated. Squires, G. D. Published by Minister of Environment every 4 years. The Finger Plan is illustrated in Figure 12.1. Sørensen, E. and J. Torfing. 2015. Copenhagen has long been committed to a compact, sustainable regional urban form. The name "Finger Plan" is based on the thought of urban structure to concentrate urban development over the traffic axes (fingers of a hand) stretching toward suburban areas from the city of Copenhagen (palm) while keeping the areas between traffic axes as open spaces (green wedges), which has been a consistent philosophy from 1947 plan through to 2007 plan. (p.243) (p.224) Lys, Luft og Renlighed: Den Moderne Socialhygiejnes Fødsel (Copenhagen: Academic Publishers). The collaborative tradition was also spurred by the rise of strong cooperative movements from the 1870s onwards. The successful design, metaphorical branding, and modular adaptability of the Finger Plan is first and foremost the result of efforts by dedicated, visionary, and skilful planners. It would not take long for an urban planner or policy adviser to identify the Finger Plan as a highly successful case of public planning in the face of rapid urbanization. The 1973 Regional Plan continued the Finger Plan’s principles of TOD and was legally enforceable. 2013. 2004. Indeed, most commentators consider the Finger Plan to be the biggest Danish planning achievement ever. The collaborative governance tradition was prompted by the coexistence of a strong and well-functioning state and a strong and well-organized civil society that called for the formation of arenas for cross-sector interaction. 2017. In the local government election in 1946, the Communist Party, which had formed the backbone of the Danish resistance movement, did very well and captured 20 per cent of seats in the Copenhagen City Council. Copenhagen ‘Finger Plan’ (Fingerplanen) 1947 Regional Planning Office (1947, reprinted 1993) Skitseforslag til Egnsplan for Storkøbenhavn (Copenhagen: Regional Planning Office) WHY I LIKE IT… This ‘plan’ is both powerful image and visionary proposal. 2017. Together, the regions and the municipalities spend almost two thirds of total public expenditure and deliver the lion’s share of tax-financed welfare services to the citizens, although the latter are based on national legislation and state regulation that define minimum standards. 2017. (p.220) ‘Robust Action and the Rise of the Medici, 1400–1434’. Soon after, the Danish Urban Planning Lab created the Regional Planning Office, an independent institution that was nonetheless co-financed by the local municipalities, the regional government, and several ministries. They played the role both of participants in networked negotiations and of meta-governors that gave direction to the process and sought to align the different actors. In J. Lundström, M. Wiberg, S. Hrastinski, M. Edenius, and P. Ågerfalk (eds), Managing Open Innovation Technologies (Berlin: Springer), pp. It offers InterCity and Express trains services across Denmark, as well as services to several international destinations, regular and frequent regional train services to and from Zealand and southern Sweden (also referred to as Øresund trains). Greater Copenhagen Areas covered by the 1947 Finger Plan and the 2003Traffic Plan The 1947 Regional Plan underwent major revision in the 1973 and 1989 regional plans, (Peter Hartoft-Nielsen, 2002). ‘A Public Management for all Seasons?’ Public Administration 69(1), 3–19. 2009. Planning with Complexity (London: Routledge). The empirical analysis of the factors driving the successful formulation and implementation of the Finger Plan will pay particular attention to the question of timing, the development of a responsive policy design, the strength of metaphors, the process of collaborative governance, the role of leadership, and the ability to adapt to changing conditions. ‘This is Not a Boundary Object: Reflections on the Origin of a Concept’. The report goes on to list a number of challenges such as lack of affordable housing, the need for enhanced mobility for skilled labourers, demand for a liveable urban environment around the S-train stations, and the need to protect biodiversity and secure access to green areas. We counter this trend by examining a genuine planning success that has managed to achieve its core objectives while maintaining broad-based political support. The traditional system of top-down government gave way to a system of collaborative governance (Ansell and Gash 2008; Emerson et al. The second principle is ‘green wedges’, which establishes that the urban fingers should be separated by green areas in which no building or construction is permitted. This rational and analytical approach to planning was in particular inspired by Patrick Geddes’ book Survey before Planning (1949). Inspiration for this exercise in holistic planning and its careful analysis of empirical trends and contexts came from England. Public Management Reform: A Comparative Analysis (Oxford: Oxford University Press). The City of Copenhagen has taken part in the monitoring group for this work and has used the region’s work in the initial phase for its own work on climate adapta-tion. Moreover, as time passes, the original concern for economic growth, housing development, and full employment becomes less and less important, while the environmental concern for preserving open land and living close to S-train stations, and thus being able to use public transport, increases. Urban sprawl onto open land and attractive sites along lakes and coastlines had been growing throughout the 1920s and 1930s, and could not be stopped by conservation, since only forests were deemed worthy of this (Vejre et al. 21–3. Minister of Environment may establish binding rules on the content of planning. New, and perhaps thicker, joints would be added along the southern finger to Køge and the south-western finger towards Roskilde. 2015; Haasnoot et al. The second conducive factor was the high degree of professional autonomy within the Danish welfare state, which allowed a new generation of skilled and visionary planners to initiate the planning process, formulate an ambitious and comprehensive plan, and slowly generate political support for their bold ideas. Now, it is seen as a major asset in global competition in which the quality of the urban environment is a key parameter in the effort to attract highly qualified people and innovative businesses (Ministry of the Environment 2007: 8–12). The twenty-five to thirty municipalities in the greater Copenhagen area clearly recognized the need to coordinate their local planning efforts, and the regional government was keen to develop a comprehensive plan for the ‘Generalplanskitsen 1954’. ‘The Copenhagen Finger Plan: Keeping a Green Space Structure by a Simple Planning Metaphor’. The Finger Plan became a cultural icon with widespread popular support. In order to plan and regulate land use at the periphery of the new neighbourhoods, a new planning law in 1949 required local and regional authorities to make long-term development plans that distinguished between land zones, urban zones, and middle zones (Hansen 2001). The image of a hand with the palm resting on the compact inner city and the fingers spread out in different directions, indicating future urban developments, graced the cover of the original Finger Plan document from 1947, and has since been reproduced in an infinite number of planning documents. Also, the Minister may order a municipal council to prepare a plan with a specified content. CONTACTGeneral Affairs Division, Policy Planning office, NRPBTEL: +81-3-5253-8111 (Ext 29158), http://europa.eu/abc/maps/members/denmark_en.htm, About 43,000 km² (about the same as Kyusyu), About 5.70 million (2016: Statistics Denmark), Ministry of Industry, Business and Financial Affairs. new demands and developments. While for the most part the size of the green wedges has been protected, the Finger Plan has been unable to prevent agricultural landscapes from being transformed from production to consumption landscapes. housing and industry located side by side in congested cityscapes with limited access to green areas. They are issued regularly to interpret legislation such as guidelines on municipal planning, rural zone administration, local planning and environment impact assessment, etc. The ubiquity of planning failures should not, however, overshadow the many examples of successful planning. In the end, it was the economic crisis from the mid-1970s onwards that put an end to the dreams of massive housing expansion on Amager and the construction of large shopping malls and housing complexes along the freight train line. “In my opinion, building new, separate terminals is not an optimal solution,” said Woldbye. Over the years, new demands were incorporated, and adjustments in the face of new developments were made in a flexible manner and based on deliberation between a broad range of public and private stakeholders. Regionplan (Copenhagen: Capital Council). This comprehensive plan was designed by architect Peter Bredsdorff and resembled a hand, with Copenhagen at the centre (the palm). While the state financed the local development plans and the City Councils endorsed them politically, the responsibility for their formulation and implementation was placed in the hands of the original team behind the Finger Plan (Lyager 2004). 2007). All in all, the implementation was relatively successful inasmuch as urbanization developed along the city fingers and the green wedges were protected from urban sprawl (Primdahl et al. ‘How America’s Cities are Growing: The Big Picture’. (p.237) The Finger Plan built on the assumption that growth in business and housing was inevitable and impossible to stop (Regional Planning Office 1947). Organizational Studies 36(3), 363–90. The Urban Planning Lab took the initiative to form the Regional Planning Office that became the vehicle for the formulation of the Finger Plan. Mikkelsen, J. K. 2004. The people of Copenhagen should essentially have options in various … The Finger Plan was conceived in the optimistic post-war years from 1945 to 1948 when pressure on land use outside the city centre was still limited. Schoon, M. L. 2008. A new theme in regional planning is the creation and maintenance of transport corridors on Zealand, where Copenhagen takes up the easternmost region. Our intention to interview some of the main actors to obtain further information about the governance process had to be abandoned since the key actors have all passed away. The simplicity of the Finger Plan’s design was one of its major strengths. There were already two S-train lines, so another three lines had to be built to complete the transport radials stretching out from the palm of the hand that comprised a dense urban area with surface traffic running in all directions Harvest, and M. Briiel (eds), Københavns Skitse til en Generalplan 1954 (Copenhagen: Byplanhistorisk Udvalg), pp. The Finger Plan was formulated through an effective combination of planning expertise and inclusive deliberation with stakeholders. Great Planning Disasters (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson). However, one of the green wedges to the north-west came under heavy pressure from urbanization. Now considered by many to be one of the greatest Danish planning achievements in history, it was included in 2006 on the national list of celebrated cultural icons. As one of the chief planners argued: ‘The most important thing in urban planning is to identify the areas that should not be urbanized’ (Andersen 2001: 5). It reached its high point in the 1960s and 1970s, and while the role and impact of tripartite negotiations has declined in the 1980s and 1990s, the role of loosely coupled networks that bring together a broad range of public and private actors seems to have increased at all levels of government, not least the local municipalities where politicians and administrators engage in extensive negotiations with local citizens and stakeholders (Torfing 2010). The Ministry of Social Affairs and the Ministry of Labour had ceased to play a role in the planning process since urban planning was no longer seen as a tool for boosting employment in the building and construction sector. The urban plan was drafted seventy years ago and still governs urban planning practices in the greater Copenhagen area. Political Studies 44(2), 343–57. Since at least the 1970s, public participation has been a strong feature of spatial planning in Denmark. Then gradually various related regulations were taken in and finally Planning Act was executed in 1992 in order to integrate those regulations. Trust in the expertise of public sector professionals and their professional organizations, and willingness to listen to and discuss their public value proposals, certainly helped to get the Finger Plan off the ground. Robust Action (New York: Garland). The only problem was that the new plans required that Copenhagen Airport would have to be moved to a new place, preferably to the unpopulated island of Saltholm next to Amager. The analysis of the factors driving the successful formulation and implementation of the Finger Plan pays attention to the question of timing, the professional process management, the political coalition building, the strength of metaphors, and the ability to adapt to changing conditions. Politically, the popularity of the Finger Plan amongst Copenhageners, especially those who moved out to the suburbs to enjoy the fresh air and green environment as well as easy access to public transport, further enhanced support for the Finger Plan at different levels of government and among politicians from different political parties. Bache, I. and M. Flinders (eds). Although elected governments at the local, regional, and national levels supported the development of the Finger Plan and formally approved the General Plan that governed its implementation, the Finger Plan was created through a bottom-up initiative by professional planners who enjoyed a high degree of autonomy. Rørbech, J. If you plan to travel beyond the zones you are given on your Commuter Card, you will need to purchase a ticket. In terms of endurance, the Finger Plan’s core principle of separating areas for housing development from open land was maintained in urban development plans throughout the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, and it continued to inform planning reforms in the 1990s and at the beginning of the new millennium. S-Tog (S-Train) Forchhammer, O. The report further covers the special planning considerations for Greater Copenhagen. 1947. The plan on Greater Copenhagen was formulated for plural times since the first Finger Plan in 1947, and it was the first time for the national government to formulate it in 2007, as it had been formulated by councils which counties and municipalities participated (such as Greater Copenhagen Authority existed during 2000 to 2007) or otherwise study groups. Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, is a city of around 1.7 mill. Motives for entering into this broad political alliance differed. A recent report invites citizens and stakeholders to debate the future development of the capital of Copenhagen (Danish Urban Planning Lab 2017). Multi-Level Governance (Oxford: Oxford University Press). ‘Trafikplanlægningen I København 1954–2004’. S-train stations that are connected by cross-cutting lines of transportation have been given a new status as ‘hub stations’ around which particular service and business functions are expected to emerge and cluster (Ministry of the Environment 2013, 2017). The plan was executed with considerable delay, but Høje Tåstrup never became a vibrant urban centre. 5–16. 2015). 2 Brazil’s Bolsa Família Programme, 3 The Remarkable Healthcare Performance in Singapore, 5 The Transformation of UK Tobacco Control, 9 Infrastructure Partnership Success in Southern California, 12 The Copenhagen Metropolitan ‘Finger Plan’, 13 The Norwegian Petroleum Fund as Institutionalized Self-Restraint, 3 The Remarkable Healthcare Performance in Singapore, 5 The Transformation of UK Tobacco Control, 9 Infrastructure Partnership Success in Southern California, 12 The Copenhagen Metropolitan ‘Finger Plan’, 13 The Norwegian Petroleum Fund as Institutionalized Self-Restraint, http://www.centreforpublicimpact.org/case-study/land-use-and-transport-denmark/, www.centreforpublicimpact.org/observatory, https://erhvervsstyrelsen.dk/sites/default/files/EndeligRrbechNotatomFingerplanogtransportkorridore.pdf. In 1939, the planning law was supplemented by a new building law that mandated all the municipalities in the Copenhagen metropolitan area to develop local plans for appropriate urban development and allowed them to expropriate land without monetary compensation. Copenhagen Kommune (City of Copenhagen) with population of 540 thousand belongs to the Capital Region of Denmark (wide-area local government). This helped to foster a joint policy dialogue among a plethora of public and private actors about the location, length, and thickness of the urban fingers, the prospects for further expansion at the tips of the fingers, the need to regenerate housing and business districts in the palm of the hand, and the future use of the land beyond the reach of the fingers. Planners, administrators, and politicians agreed that these unintended negative developments had to be stopped by a rational and comprehensive plan for the location of housing, business, service functions, transport lines, and green corridors. The latter was already clearly stated in a 1936 inter-municipal white paper on the protection of green areas (Forchhammer 1936). Copenhagen, collaborative governance, urban planning, Finger Plan, land use, A condensed and thematically structured version of this same case study can be found at the Public Impact Observatory. At the regional level, the Regional Planning Committee (1967–74), the Capital Council (1974–89), and the Capital Development Council (2000–6) had overall planning responsibility in the metropolitan area and maintained close relations with key for-profit and non-profit stakeholders that were involved in a large number of public committees. Already in 1958, it was clear to everybody that both economic and population growth exceeded the predictions in the Finger Plan, which had been made during a downswing after the economic crisis in the 1930s and the war in the 1940s. In terms of urban planning in the metropolitan area, there were a few, lone attempts to plan urban development when King Christian IV expanded what today constitutes the inner city of Copenhagen in the first half of the seventeenth century. A holistic plan was needed that respected and combined all these functionalities while simultaneously facilitating and accommodating the expected growth of the Danish capital. The third proposition is that support for the well-crafted and robust Finger Plan was ensured by the development of a system of collaborative governance that combined horizontal relations and vertical connections. The planners became a core part of the formal government institutions. Torfing, J. According to the plan, Copenhagen is to develop along five 'fingers', centred on S-train commuter rail lines, which extend from the 'palm', that is the dense urban fabric of central Copenhagen. In March 1945—two months before the German occupation ended—they invited a broad range of interested people to an open meeting in the Danish Urban Planning Lab, which was a private forum for discussion amongst architects and planners. Political support for the Finger Plan was secured. Soon after, it announced its own plan which proposed a combination of longer fingers with new joints, massive urbanization of the island of Amager situated south of the city centre, 2007). This chapter analyses the conditions for, and the adaptive development of, the Finger Plan. 5. Primdahl, J., A. G. Busck, and C. Lindemann. May order a municipal Plan proposal on behalf of all government ministers if the proposal contradicts national interests Forbindelser Stat... 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